Dyslipidaemia is a well-known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. As a consequence, the medical community has been dealing with this problem for decades, and traditional statin therapy remains the cornerstone therapeutic approach. However, clinical trials have observed remarkable results for a few agents effective in the treatment of elevated serum lipid levels. Ezetimibe showed good but limited results when used in combination with statins. Bempedoic acid has been thoroughly studied in multiple clinical trials, with a reduction in LDL cholesterol by approximately 15%. The first approved monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of dyslipidaemia, PCSK9 inhibitors, are currently used as second-line treatment for patients with unregulated lipid levels on statin or statin combination therapy. A new siRNA molecule, inclisiran, demonstrates great potential, particularly concerning compliance, as it is administered twice yearly and pelacarsen, an antisense oligonucleotide that targets lipoprotein(a) and lowers its levels. The newest possibilities for the treatment of dyslipidaemia are ANGPTL3 inhibitors with evinacumab, already approved by the FDA, and EMA for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia.
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